Miocardiopatía dilatada (MCD)

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common type, occurring mostly in adults younger than 50. It affects the heart's ventricles and atria, the lower and upper chambers of the heart.

Frequently, the disease starts in the left ventricle, the heart's main pumping chamber. The heart muscle begins to dilate, stretching and becoming thinner. As a result, the inside of the chamber enlarges. The problem often spreads to the right ventricle and then to the atria.

As the heart chambers dilate, the heart muscle doesn't contract normally and can't pump blood very well. As the heart becomes weaker, heart failure can occur. Common symptoms of heart failure include shortness of breath, fatigue and swelling of the ankles, feet, legs, abdomen and veins in the neck.

La miocardiopatía dilatada también puede ocasionar problemas de las válvulas cardíacas, arritmias (latidos cardíacos irregulares) y coágulos de sangre en el corazón.

Otros nombres de la miocardiopatía dilatada

  • Alcoholic cardiomyopathy. (Overuse of alcohol causes the disease)
  • Miocardiopatía congestiva
  • Miocardiopatía diabética
  • Miocardiopatía dilatada hereditaria
  • Miocardiopatía idiopática
  • Ischemic cardiomyopathy (Coronary heart disease, also called coronary artery disease, or heart attack cause the disease. Not all forms of DCM are ischemic in origin.)
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy (When the disease develops in a woman shortly before or after she gives birth)
  • Miocardiopatía primaria

Qué causa la miocardiopatía dilatada

The cause of dilated cardiomyopathy often isn't known. Up to one-third of the people who have it inherit it from their parents.

La enfermedad también puede ser consecuencia de otras enfermedades, afecciones o sustancias, por ejemplo:

  • Enfermedad coronaria, ataque al corazón, hipertensión arterial, diabetes, enfermedad tiroidea, hepatitis vírica y VIH
  • Infecciones, especialmente infecciones víricas que inflaman el músculo cardíaco
  • Alcohol, especialmente si se lo combina con una mala alimentación
  • Complications during the last month of pregnancy or within five months of birth
  • Algunas toxinas, como el cobalto
  • Certain drugs (such as cocaine and methamphetamines) and two medicines that treat cancer (doxorubicin and daunorubicin)